By commercial policy one understands all measures, which serve the influence of extent and direction of the foreign trade one or several countries in the broader sense. In addition on the one hand all measures rank among the promotion of the foreign trade like e.g. the conclusion of trade agreements, which formation of foreign trade zones, which serve establishment of a customs union, in addition, measures those the preparation of foreign trade business like the promotion of foreign fairs. In the broadest sense one can understand also the integration politics as kind of play of the commercial policy. On the other hand among also all measures rank with which one tries in break with the ideal of the free trade foreign trade purposefully in the interest of certain sectors or producers to affect (strategic commercial policy). Often the meaning of commercial policy is restricted on this second circumstances.
Tariffs are the classical instrument of the strategic commercial policy. Depending upon its reason one differentiates:
Contingents are quantitative restrictions, which a state for the imports of certain goods, in rarer cases also export imposes.
Export subsidies are granted by a state, in order to promote the export of certain goods.
In the effect as subsidies the Dumping is similar. Among them one understands the sales about goods abroad at a price, which is lower than the manufacturing costs and/or under the price is clearly, at which a manufacturer its product e.g. on its homeland market sets off. Dumping represents however a commercialpolitical instrument only if it is made possible by national measures. Frequently it is also expression of an enterprise strategy.
A special form are the partial - i.e. some goods concerned - or complete prohibition of the trade with certain countries (embargo). This applies e.g. to the export of war weapons or goods, which can serve the production of weapons. In Germany this is regulated in the external trade law. A complete prohibition of the trade with a country comes usually for political reasons, mostly on resolution of the UN (e.g. embargo against the Iraq).
Not barriers to trade, also gray area measures mentioned, one calls all attempts to make by regulations outside of the foreign trade right to foreign offerers more difficult the Marktzugang. In addition e.g. count.
In the measure, how obstacles lost HOLE and/or the World Trade Organization at meaning by international agreements, were not Hemmnisee on the advance.
The international cooperation in the area of the commercial policy and the conciliation of disputes were regulated until 1994 in 1947 created generally tariff and trade agreement (HOLE). Within its framework until 1994 in eight world trade rounds a clear, world-wide dismantling of the tariffs were reached. 1995 it replaced by the world trade organization World Trade Organization, in which partially the old HOLE continues to live, which in addition, rules for the international trade with services contains GATS and international rules for handling mental property TRIPS. In former times the HOLE and today the World Trade Organization are also addressees, if a country feels disadvantaged with the foreign trade by another. If a complaint raised there against-evenly and the causer does not terminate the handicap, retortion or antidumping tariffs may be raised.
The member states of the EEC delivered its legislative authority in the commercial policy to the European level. As customs union the European Union orders over a common customs tariff opposite third countries. Kind 133 of the EEC contract gives the authority to the European community to pursue measures for the pursuit of a uniform European commercial policy. The common commercial policy consists of the autonomous commercial policy (internal measures of the EEC: e.g. antidumping regulation) and the contractual commercial policy (foreign trade agreement with third states). , By the 133er-Ausschuss, possess the suggestion and negotiation monopoly advise and support the European commission. It represents also the European Union states with the negotiations the World Trade Organization. The agreements are closed by the advice.
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