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» Economics » Explosive » Topics begins with C » CL20

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CL20, also as Hexanitroisowurtzitan and/or HNIW admits, is belonged to one of the strongest well-known chemical explosives and to the group of the Nitramine. The enormous explosive yield is both at its high density and because of the high internal tension of the molecule.

For a commercial use it is so far too expensive because of the complex synthesis and associated high production costs.

CL20 was discovered 1987 of researchers of the Naval air of throwing acres center Weapons division in China Lake, California. (NAWS China Lake)

  • Further synonyms; 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane

Octahydro-1,3,4,7,8,10-hexanitro-5,2,6 (iminomethenimino) - 1H-imidazo [4,5-b] pyrazin;

  • CAS number 14913-74-7

Physical data

Sum formula: C6H6N12O12Dichte (g/cm 2.04 detonation speed: 10300m/sMolare mass: 438.19 g/mol4 Polymorphe: \ alpha HNIW, \ beta HNIW, \ gamma HNIW, \ epsilon HNIW \ epsilon HNIW: Polymorph with the highest crystal density and stability-colorless monoclinic crystals; Density: 2,03 g/cm Schmp. > 273"°C (Zers.) soluble in ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, THF, butanone; insolubly in hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluol.

As explosive ~14% than Oktogen.Damit the material the most explosive mixtures from tetranitromethane and toluol (detonation speeds is stronger: 9000-10000 m/s) do not consider. Thermal stability clearly smaller than smaller from Oktogen.Dampfdruck substantially than of Oktogen.


The synthesis of HNIW takes place in a three-stage reaction: First one lets benzyle amine 1 react with Glyoxal 2 under acid catalysis, whereby in a remarkable condensation reaction the Hexaazaisowurtzitan cage is developed: one receives the hexadecimal benzyle derivative 3. In the second step 3 of a palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation in presence by acetic anhydride one subjects: Four of the six groups of benzyles are reduced to toluol, to their place step acetyl groups. (The added bromine benzene serves to set constantly small quantities free catalytically working hydrobromic acid). One receives 4, then gradually first with Nitrosoniumtetrafluoroborat (NO+BF4), then with Nitroniumtetrafluoroborat (NO2+BF4) is nitrated. In newer patents is maintained to be able to accomplish nitrating also with much cheaper saltpeter or

English-language article with StrukturformelA. T. Nielsen '' et al. '', '' Tetrahedron '' ''' 1998 ''', '' 54 '', 11793-812. (Detailed article, liable to pay the costs)

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