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» Economics » Hunt » Topics begins with C » Cartridge (ammunition)

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 22:23:41

As cartridge (frz. for template) one designates a unit from propellant and projectile for use in tubing weapons. In addition, the unit is manufactured by a newest developments permits the renouncement of the case. In addition modern cartridges usually contain a

Cartridges rank among the ammunition and in calibers by 4.5 mm (small caliber pistols) up to 125mm (MBT T-80) are used. Schrotpatronen contain many small projectiles. Other special cartridges can in place of the projectile or additionally also float, shine or bang-corrode or gas charges to contain.

For hand-held weapons (rifles, pistols, guns as well as most automatic weapons the cartridge is compound supplied up or loaded in the sporty range and with the hunt by reloaders themselves.

Organization of fixed ammunition

One can divide fixed ammunition for hand-held weapons according to different categories.

  • Use
    • Kind
      • Sporting guns
      • Hunting weapons
      • Customs and war weapons
    • Type of weapon
      • Gun
      • Pistol
      • Submachine gun
      • Rifle
        • Einzellader and repeating rifle
        • (fully automatic) self load rifle and machine gun
        • long-range sniper rifle
      • Gun
      • Special forms
  • Caliber and strength
    • Small caliber
    • Large caliber
    • Magnum
    • Subsound
  • Case material
    • Paper
    • Metal
  • Case form
    • Cylinder
    • Bottle neck
    • conical design
    • caseless
  • Ground shape
    • with edge (R - rimmed)
    • with half edge (SR - semi rimmed)
    • without edge (- rimless)
    • with belt (B - belt)
    • with drawn in edge (RB - rebated)
  • Ignition
    • Edge fire ignition
    • Lefaucheux ignition
    • Central fire ignition
      • Medium ignition
  • Projectile material
    • Lead alloy
    • Lead alloy with iron or Kupfermantel
    • from the full one milled projectile
    • Uranium
    • Auxiliary coating from plastic, teflon, among other things
  • Projectile form and structure of projectile
    • Ball
    • Wadcutter
    • Round head
    • halfpointedly
    • pointedly
    • Flat head
    • Hollowpointedly
    • Softly POINT
    • Partial coat
    • Soil with coat
    • Soil without coat
    • Torpedo tail
    • with gas checks
    • with mobile core
    • Pellet
    • Gun run projectile
  • special designs
    • Micro caliber cartridge
    • Multiple projectile cartridge
      • Duplex cartridge
      • Triplexpatrone
      • Squeezing caliber cartridge
      • Arrow cartridge
    • Cap cartridge
    • Case lots ammunition
    • Platzpatrone
    • Gaspatrone
    • Copperhead M712

Special form of case lots ammunition

To the caseless ammunition cartridges without case or with itself belong more using up (completely more burning) to case as well as rocket projectiles. With the caseless ammunition the projectile is injected into the propellant. The powder is coated afterwards with a resin. A well-known example of a weapon, which can fire such ammunition, is the cartridge 4.7 x 21 mm for the rifle Heckler & cook G11. The advantages of such ammunition are obvious: without the case the cartridge is more easily and there the propellant is squarely pressed, can one the ammunition with the same projectile size of comparable case ammunition better transport. In addition the halving of the costs comes by the renouncement of the production of the case. In addition higher firing cadences can be achieved, because no case must be discharged. Two fundamental problems face that. On the one hand it is to be sealed more heavily the catch against escaping gases, on the other hand leads the caseless ammunition to a stronger heating of the weapon, since no warmth is dissipated by the ejection of the hot case, but the heat energy of the propulsion gases directly to the catch are stated.


With modern ammunition almost exclusively the central fire ignition is used. Here centrically a primer cap sits in the case soil, which a firing pin meets. The primer is burned down and the developing energy by one or more ignition channels in the case soil toward the propellant is directed. An important task of the primer cap is it besides to lock the cartridge at the soil gas-tight.

With small caliber ammunition also today the edge fire ignition is still usually used. Here the case at the soil forms an edge, in which the primer is. The firing pin meets the edge of the case and ignites so the primer. Most important advantage is the cost-saving renouncement of a primer cap. In addition this ammunition can be shipped well in tube magazines, since the ogives of shell cannot affect here with impacts like a firing pin the primer. But these cartridges can be shipped only badly in larger (bar) magazines. An exception forms a Swiss submachine gun with a 176-Schuss plate magazine.

Modern tank ammunition is partially also electrically ignited and/or "sharpened" only at the tube end by means of induction pick-up coils the effect charge (hollow and/or explosive charge).

With the Flobertgewehr the priming charge is simultaneous the propellant charge. Additionally there is still the become outdated today and the Lefaucheux ignition.

Cartridge caliber

For hand-held weapons projectile diameters up to 20 mm are used. Military weapons use cartridges up to approx. for the caliber 40 mm. Beyond that usually separate projectiles and propellants are used.

Cartridges for hand-held weapons are used in most diverse calibers and lengths. The German nomenclature designates first the caliber and then the length of the case (9 x 19 mm). If it concerns a case with edge or half edge, an appropriate contraction is attached (7.65 x 17 mm HR). Around distinctions further when same dimensions to meet can, most different additives were converted (6.5 x 53.5 mm of Mannlicher/Greece 03 and/or 6.5 x 53.5 mm of Mannlicher M1900)

Colloquially different designations are often used to also put in order the difference out to the usual ammunition clearly (9mm briefly instead of 9 x 17 mm of Browning).

In the anglo-saxon countries the calibers are usually indicated in tariff and supplemented around the name of the developer (,223 Remington). However every now and then also the year of the introduction (,30-06 = introduced in 1906) or the charge and the projectile weight,45-90-300 are indicated. Often the caliber data agree in addition, with the real data or are not roughly rounded. Thus,357 Magnum can be fired also cartridges of the caliber,38 Special from, although these have nominal larger diameter.

"Magnum" - cartridges are however longer than the standard cartridge. Since longer cartridges take up a larger propellant, these have usually a higher striking power.

The standard projectiles have smoothly a "cut off" end and thus an aerodynamically unfavorable form. The "Boat Tail" (EN. Bottom structure) ball has an easily angespitztes end (a sectional view such a ball resembles strongly outlined a bottom structure) and is so more aerodynamic. She flies on and more stably.

Short weapon cartridge

A short weapon cartridge is a cartridge, which is furnished for the use in a short weapon (handgun), thus a gun cartridge or a pistol cartridge.

Such cartridges are usually cylindrically (e.g. calibers of,38 Special) or completely easily conical (e.g. calibers of 9 x 19 mm). However there is exceptions and it gives also short weapons, the rifle ammunition fires.

Cartridges in pistols

A pistol cartridge is a cartridge, which is conceived mainly as ammunition for the use in a pistol. It usually has no edge (with it the cartridges in a magazine to be better one above the other arranged can). But they have always a circulating groove before the head of cartridge case, the extractor groove. Into it the extractor claw reaches, in order to eject the empty-shot case from the cartridge chamber (run) by the ejection window from the weapon.

There are however also some few pistols, which are furnished for gun cartridges (e.g. the Israeli "Desert Eagle" in the caliber of,357 Magnum and,44 Magnum).

Cartridges in guns

A gun cartridge is a cartridge, which is conceived mainly for the use in a gun. It has in most cases an edge, so that the cartridges are held in the cartridge chambers and not by the drilling in the drum to fall. Gun cartridges have mostly a longer case than comparable pistol cartridges, the possible larger propellant resulting from it increase their striking power opposite pistol ammunition.

With special mounting plates (metal disks with recesses) also pistol cartridges without edge can be fired in appropriate guns. The loading procedure can be accelerated by the metal disks provided with several cartridges.

Besides with guns in rifle calibers one experiments, which are however usually manufactured as unique pieces and to be handled only difficult are. Some these "giants "can be only fired with gel gloves and integral helmet without heavy injuries by the weapon movement in the shot to risk.

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