Bletchley park is northwest 70 km the name of an English countryseat in Buckinghamshire, of about from London.
Bletchley park was created on instruction by Winston Churchill. There scientists from Great Britain and Poland strove around it, the coding methods with communications of the German armed forces during the Second World War (e.g. Siemens secret writer to break Lorenz teleprinters and Enigma).
Reasons for selection of the location were:
Bletchley park was secret "classified until 1973 as "top and is closely connected with the history of the English decoding organizations Room of 40 and late GC&CS as well as its successor Government Communications Headquarters.
The first coworkers were veterans from the cryptology department of the admiralty "Room 40 ", like Alastair Denniston and Dillwyn Knox. In addition outstanding mathematicians, like Alan Turing and Gordon Welchman, pushed in addition, historian, linguist and large chess players.
They built the Polish Kryptologen, Marian Rejewski, Jerzy and Henryk Zygalski in the Polish Biuro in Pyry on bases, since 1928 had put. A German employee of the coding department of the realm army, Hans Thilo Schmidt, had handed designs to the Enigma i and documents over over the applied key procedure to the captain of the French intelligence service Gustave Bertrand. Bertrand made it available Poland, which created it, to reconstruct the internal connections of the Enigma and to make until 1939 approx. 70 reproductions of the Enigma i. Rejewski had even succeeded it to develop from six copied Enigma machines electromagnetic equipment, the Bomba which was able, in approx. 100 to 120 minutes the possible roller combinations of the Enigma to examine. Zygalski had invented special numbers of perforated paper sheets, which became related the solution of the saying keys. Meanwhile the Britisher had succeeded in penetrating into the radio traffic of some Enigma D using Italian and Franco Spaniard. Still in July 1939 met Frenchmen, the British and Poland in Pyry, in order to inform about their past results and beginnings. The Polish Kryptoanalytiker was evacuated neck over head partially after destruction of its documents over Romania to France, where they worked in Vignolles at Paris in the French counterpart to Bletchley park. After the German assault on France they were passed on after Bletchley park, where on the basis of a Polish Enigma reproduction a British type ex machine could work like a Enigma machine.
By Marian Rejewski, Alan Turing and other important bases for the development of the modern computers were put. 1943 were taken in Bletchley park of one the forerunner of the today's computers, Colossus in enterprise. It served FISH Tunny for decoding the SZ42-Verkehrs, mentioned.
The deciphering of the German codes by Bletchley park supplied during "the air battle around England "important realizations to the British with over strength and locations of Air Force Luftwaffe. In connection with the detections of the radar chain they could give Home chain the RAF important notes for the employment of the British fighter wings.
By interception of the radio traffic of the German Africa corps some successes could be obtained against the supply lines, also in the apron of German offensive ones proved hearing as effective. On German side however partial suspicious factors arose.
Also with the attacks of German submarines in the North Atlantic on the allied supply convoys could along-read Bletchley park with a time delay of to four days German radio traffic. Thus the allied naval guidance received the possibility of leading around the escort courses around the German submarine herds and the own submarine defense of effektivieren: The own chase aircraft carriers, the long-range aircraft and the ships equipped with sensors and radar to the submarine hunt were advanced to the list areas of the submarines.
By the radio deception maneuver developed on a long-term basis operation Fortitude, with which Bletchley park used deciphered expectations commanders in chief of the west under the defense in dessem radio traffic with Berlin, deceived the allied side over the beginning of the invasion in normandy outside many fictitious divisions a strong, close to which channel stationed 1st US-Army-Group forwards, which bound the German tank reserve and many other military forces in northwest France and Belgium with beginning of invasion, because the German side counted on a second, still larger allied landing in Calais.
Despite all British precautionary measures the Soviet Union in Bletchley park had placed an agent named John Cairncross.