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» Economics » Orchideen » Topics begins with B » Becomes green hollow tongue

Page modified: Thursday, July 14, 2011 01:01:48
Becomes green hollow tongue
:Asparagus-well-behaved (Asparagales)
:Orchideen (Orchidaceae)
:Hollow tongues (Coeloglossum)
:Becomes green hollow tongue
Scientific name
Coeloglossum viride
(L.) Hartm. 1820

The Green hollow tongue (Coeloglossum viride) ranks beside the white (Pseudorchis albida) and the elder boy herb (Dactylorhiza sambucina) among the typical Orchideen of the mountain meadows. It is related close to the (Dactylorhiza), to which it is assigned today taxonomisch also by eingigen authors due to molecular-genetic research (Dactylorhiza viridis). Since these results are accepted not yet in the Allgemeinbotanik, here first the past kind name is used. The name leads itself from Greek koilos (hollow, scooped out), glossa (the tongue) and viride, from Latin viridis (green) off, is translated into the German linguistic usage literally and refers to the scooped out spur. Due to its size and usually greenish color the Green hollow tongue is a very inconspicuous plant.

Morphology, biology

The Green hollow tongue remains usually small, can reach however also stature heights up to 30 centimeters. At affirmative stature places it arises individually or in small groups. The plants possess divided tubers. The blunt-sharp-edged, bald is lightyellowish green. 3 to 7 lower Laubbl¤tter is egg-shaped; the upper more lanzettlich.

The bloom conditions can be as likewise poor. Up to 30 blooms are possible. They stand with their turned Fruchtknoten in the shoulder of lanzettlich greener carrying sheets, small, greenish-yellow to green and sometimes reddish overflowed. The five - in each case only few millimeters largely - bend so to each other that they take the form of a hemispheric helmet. A thick, dreilappige, maximally 10 millimeters long lip hangs down and gives this Orchideenart their names. The spur measures only 2 to 3 millimeters. By the glands trained at the lip reason the bloom a weakly honey-like smell, which attracts the like for example beetles, bees, Hummeln or wasps.

The bloom time extends as a function of altitude, location and area-climatic influences on beginning/in the middle of May in deeper situations to at the end of of June or Anfang July. At gebirgigen forest locations over shelly limestone (about 400 meters of NN) still at the beginning of of August flowering plants can be found. Usually the fruit lug of the plants is quite high.

Genetics, development

The Green hollow tongue has a Karyotyp of two and in each case 20 Chromosomen (Zytologie: 2n = 40). The Same of these Orchidee does not contain any feeding fabrics for the Keimling. Germinating takes place therefore only with infection via a root mushroom (Mykorrhiza). The duration from germinating to the development of the flowerable plant could be determined not yet sufficiently.


The Green hollow tongue is on moderately damp, nutrient-poor, to find often however lime-rich soils at a value of 2900 meters of NN. In addition, the low mountain ranges with sour lean lawns, drying and half drying lawns offer a habitat to the Green hollow tongue with soils with a pH value from 5,7 to 7,9.

She is in the Pflanzengesellschaften:

  • Connected Mesobromion
  • Order Seslerietalia variae

(Classification see: Plant-sociological units after Oberdorfer).


The area of the Greens hollow tongue extends on the northern hemisphere from North America to Eastern Asia, over far parts of north, central and south Europe, particularly the alpine and Turkey, the Krim and the Caucasus.

After the Orchideenkundler Karl Peter Buttler is it a Florenelement (meridional/montanen) the submeridional/montanen temp advice boreal arctic Florenzone.

The spreading in Germany shows that the Green can seem to hollow tongue also in the hill and flat country starting from 100 meters of NN. These isolated occurrences, usually on lime lean lawns, in addition, are particularly affected in light forests, by the decrease of the competition-weak kind. In Lower Saxony the Green hollow tongue already became extinct. In Hessen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rheinland-Pfalz and the Saarland it is classified as strongly endangered. In Baden-Wuerttemberg, Saxonia, Saxonia-Anhalt and Thuringia it is threatened from becoming extinct. However for Bavaria the status applies endangered. In Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Coeloglossum viride never occurred, on the other hand she became known in Brandenburg at a discovery site with few copies.

In Switzerland it is still to a large extent safe in the higher situations. In deeper situations it is very rare by the intensification of the agriculture.

In Austria it occurs in all Lands of the Federal Republic with exception of Vienna and castle country, where it is considered as become extinct.

The present European spreading emphasis lies in the alps. In addition, in the Eifel, which which Fichtelgebirge, in the Black Forest, which Swabian Alb and the forest has the Green hollow tongue a spreading area, if an extensive meadow use takes place, which the biotope structures kurzrasig and keeps. With task of this traditional use the decrease of this plant type accepted dramatic extents. Also further factors of influence play like for example nutrient entry or the climatic change a role.

Nature protection and endangerment

Like all Orchideenarten occurring in Europe also the Green hollow tongue stands under strict protection of European and national laws.

Red lists

  • Red list Germany: 3+
  • Red list of Lands of the Federal Republic: Baden-Wuerttemberg: 2, Bavaria: 3, Berlin: -, Brandenburg: -, Bremen: -, Hamburg: -, Hessen: 2, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: -, Lower Saxony: 0, North Rhine-Westphalia: 2, Rhineland-Palatinate: 2, Saarland: 2, Saxonia-Anhalt: 1, Saxonia: 1, Schleswig-Holstein: -, Thuringia: 1
  • Red list Switzerland: LC (Concern leases) - does not endanger
  • Red list Austria: regionally basin endangers in the western alpine area and in the Klagenfurter.

The Green hollow tongue is a particularly sensitive representative of the endangered Bergwiesenflora and has a very large decrease to register. In the year 2004 this plant was explained by the working group of domestic Orchideen (AHO) in Germany as the Orchidee of the yearly, in order to make attentive and a destruction against of these biotopes by afforestation and covering affect the problem of preservation and care of the mountain meadows. If one wants to receive this interesting Orchideenart, primarily its habitats are to be secured. In addition it requires the meadow care by regular Mahd and/or extensive Beweidung. To intensive pasture and fertilization the Green hollow tongue reacts negatively. After longer fallow should be entbuscht carefully. Can be prevented to a Versauerung of the soil by appropriate mineral supply - for example Thomas flour or Holzasche -.

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