Approx. 700-900 tons amber are promoted annually in the open mining. Of it however only a fraction is suitable for the decoration manufacturing. Most pieces of find are small. The two largest Berne stones, which were found 1922 and 1970 in Sweden, weigh ever about 1.8 kg. Filters other pieces, which were gathered until 1968, to have a weight between 0,8 and 1,2 kg. The world-wide largest saved piece of amber was gotten by Swedish lobster Fischer from the sea and possessed at the time of the find a mass of 10,478 kg. Since one reduced somewhat from it, it weighs now still 8.868 kg. As this piece of find 48 x 22 x 20 cm of large and 9.1 kg a heavy block is more well-known in the citizen of Berlin museum for natural history of the Humboldt university.
From 1974 to 1993 the Saxonia anhaltische bitter field was an important extraction area. When the Soviet Union lowered its annual exports into the 1970er years drastically, this gave the cause for it, in bitter fields the brown coal open mining the amber first with digging rake and shovel to diminish starting from 1976 with shovel dredgers and a conveyor plant mechanically. End of the 1990er years was flooded the pit and the amber-pregnant layers thereby inaccessible.
Until 2002 were the main discovery site the large pit of Palmnicken with Kaliningrad (king mountain), which admits by its large amber occurrences accessible in the open mining became. After the exhaustion of the occurrences in black place 1827 were furnished to Stantien & Becker with Palmnicken world-wide probably the only amber work by the company "". Palmnicken ajar against the Russian word for amber, jantar , in Jantarny renamed, after it had become after the Second World War part of the Soviet Union. To Jantarny the Succinit from "the blue earth was promoted ".
"The blue earth "is several meters a thick, grey-green sediment layer, the Glaukonit and the Baltic amber contains. In some places a cubic meter contains two to three kilograms amber. The occurrence extends wide at the coast in 10 m and in the inland in 30 m depth. After the overburden over "the blue earth was cleared away ", an excavator with large shovel a ton of earth from the wall schrappte and unloaded it behind itself. Then the substrate with water was suspended. Next the muddy mass was carried by large pumps over kilometer-long pipes in the collective combine. There one sieved the amber out and supplied him to the further use. The dredged overburden flowed over a tubing system into the Baltic Sea.
After by the Russian tariff large quantities thief and smuggled goods (approx. 900 - 1000 kg raw amber and up to 6000 pieces of finished products within two years) seized were, whose traces could be retraced into the amber collective combine Jantarny, one increased safety precautions to the Palmnickengrube, which promoted 90% of the annual world supply. Finally one gave it up in the year 2002 and flooded the open mining.
The locking of the amber dismantling in Jantarny has for the trade as a consequence that the amber prices rise since then. Since one sold and did not hoard the amber in the last years immediately, a bottleneck developed. On the amber fair "amberif "in Danzig there were few good Inklusen to buy last only. According to prognoses there is to be a lack of amber in the offer in the next years, which the prices in large measure is to let rise, even if there are further rumors over again opened pits (Promorskoye) in the Exklave Kaliningrad.
Since Poland lay in the antique one at the amber route, the material was there always a valuable raw material, particularly in 2. Century was acted. Also in today's time Poland is an important amber supplier, whose supplies on 12.000 t become estimated. The Polish amber originates mainly from Mozdzanowo, where it is found in many different colours. 60% of the pieces of find are transparent. Also at the junction point to the peninsula Hela is to amber in 130 m depth. Recently on the Lubliner Hochebene occurrences were discovered. Thus again the amber offer becomes larger.
In the chemical industry first for the decoration industry suitable amber for the production of amber varnish, amber oil and succinic acid was used. Today these products are synthetically produced.
Since the invention of the press amber into the 1870er years in king mountain and since the first industriellen conversion 1881 in Vienna and then later also in the national amber - one finds it to Manufaktur king mountain with utensils such as cigarette points, mouthpieces of pipes or the Turkish Tschibuk, Nippes and cheap decoration. At first press Berne stones were used variously, but the still cheaper plastic, it began with bakelite, displaced it nearly completely. Thus it comes that press amber naturally completely particularly produces and nature amber today the impression of something special one. A further very rare operational area are electrical insulators, since its resistivity amounts to approximately 1016 Om and so that is larger than from porcelain.
Amber is used since old time as cure. Thus Plinius the older one writes in its Naturalis historia that on the skin carried Bernsteinamulette protects against fever. The faith in "Kraft of the stone "appears also in magic conceptions of the modern times - about, if is recommended to put wives amber at night on the chest in order it in such a way to confessing bad acts of bringing. In the people superstition amber is considered as protection from bad charm and is to drive witches and Trolle out.
Zermahlener amber was used internally against different diseases, so among other things with kidney, Gallen, liver diseases, for problems in the stomach range and the digesting system. Besides one used it as smoking means. Starting from that 19. Century was used the amber oil won from amber for the application in with rheumatism.
In the Esoterik applies amber until today as "welfare and protection stone ", which are to take fears and give joy of life. In order to unfold its full effect, it is to be carried for a long time without interruption on the skin.
Today amber is with many mothers as a "teething assistance" likes: An amber chain around the neck of the baby put is for the child a teething to facilitate and to it the pain take.
Amber was already worked on in the Steinzeit. Everyone can manage this without large machine expenditure.
For the treatment of amber wet sandpaper with granulations is used from 80 to 1000 as well as needle files with stroke 1 and 2, dredging chalk (alternative: Tooth paste), Brennspiritus, water, linen or cotton rag, chamois (leather cloth), a small drill press and twist drill (max. 1 mm), a medium strong leaves saw (to cutting large pieces of amber) and a fishing rod chord (to the of a chain). In handling the devices caution is required. On a work bench best too the "Rohsteine" can be berbeitenden by means of small clamping fixtures to work on.
In the first step the amber is filed and polished. The unwanted decomposition crust with the needle file or wet sandpaper of the granulation 80 to 120 is removed. For the setting up the cross section with the amber or the sandpaper circling movements are implemented. The granulation is increased gradually to 1000. This treatment requires something patience, since the rougher Schleifspuren of the previous sandpaper must be smoothly polished, before the next finer granulation can be used. Besides the amber before each change of the sandpaper should be rinsed off thoroughly with water to avoid in order not to overheat it (by it a sticky surface can develop) and around scratches.
In the second step becomes the amber of the polish, which last processing step when sharpening, submitted. In addition a linen and/or a cotton cloth is dampened with white spirits and coated with dredging chalk. With in such a way prepared cloth the amber in circling motion is polished and washed afterwards under water. In the end the amber with a chamois is repolished.
In the third step becomes into the amber, if desired, a hole bored. The drill is clamped into an electrical hand drill. The used number of revolutions should be low, and a certain exercise in the handling from drills is not only for safety reasons of advantage. The drill may not be driven misjudged or with large pressure by the amber, there amber very pressure-sensitively is very large and thus the danger of fracture. If the amber should break nevertheless once, a commercial second adhesive helps.
Matte one, little shining, blunt or older Berne stones get a beautiful gloss with something furniture wax.
(Wikipedia does not take over adhesion for accidents. Obeying this guidance takes place on own danger.)
Amber should be rinsed regularly under flowing warm water and not be put into the sun, since it becomes fast fragile. In addition one should protect it against soap and finery means, since these destroy him.
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