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» Economics » Decoration » Gem stone » Amber

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 20:02:25

The emergence of the Baltic amber

The Baltic amber or Succinit is the most important and best investigated amber. One finds it at the coasts of the east and North Sea and in SAM country in "the blue earth ". The Baltic amber originated in in the old Tertiary period approx. 40-50 million years ago in the area of central Sweden/Finland. At that time the amber forest in such a way specified in a broad belt from east extended to west to to the coast. Their process be however different than today, so that the the area the of today's Denmark, South Sweden and Northern Germany of Water cover be, while the today's Poland and Norway by a a line approximately on the the process the of the today's river connect be. The Baltic Sea developed only substantially later. So it is to be explained that the Baltic amber is to be found also at the today's North Sea Coast. The Succinit developed, as the resin flowed, dried up and confirmed out Bernsteinkiefern so mentioned (Pinus succinifera) after previous injury of the crust.

The sank approx. 40-50 million year ago due to from large climatic and locational changes in sumps. With rising sea level waves and currents loosened the flooded forest soil up, washed the aging resin out and deposited it at different new places. Large quantities amber were transported by a particularly strong current into a bay, which extends from the SAM land coast to to the west of Danzig. It set off and by tonus in accordance with substrate, sand and rock formations was covered. The sediments consolidated themselves later to "the blue earth ". Developed brown coal with resin enclosed in which drained itself under the pressure and Luftabschluss. This process led to the oxidation of the organic carbon molecules. With the time so the amber formed from the resin. To this productive stores in the east Baltic in the long run all amber finds of Northern Europe can be attributed, in particular however along "the amber coast ".

The spreading and find areas of the Succinits stand in connection with the solid ice-age around and deposits. Within the last million the Baltic amber experienced years the largest relocating. Three ice ages, the elster, Saale and last the Weichsel ice age over-drove the today's Baltic Sea basin and northern Central Europe with their glaciers from northeast and seized both amber deposits and for example deposits from the chalk time. Lumps of earth, rock, sand and debris masses as well as large stones transported the ice until Denmark and in north Germans the low country. Most stores from amber are in sediments, which were approx. 40 million years ago with sea water in contact. Amber in fossil forest soil is discovered rarely.

Amber inclusions: Inklusen


In the rigid resin of the amber are conserved ways of life, which lived before millions of years on earth in forests: On the one hand one finds small animals or parts of it as inclusions: different (Arthropoden), above all insects such as flies, mosquitoes, spirit levels, ear worms, termites, grasshoppers, cicadas and fleas, in addition, woodlice, crustaceans, spiders and worms as well as isolates snails, bird feathers/springs and hair of mammals. Even an enclosed lizard was found. (see for this in addition, the chapter "falsifications and manipulations"!).

On the other hand there is a multiplicity of vegetable Inklusen: Mushrooms, Moose and lichens, in addition, plant parts, which come from larches, spruces, firs, palms, Zypressen, Eiben and oaks. Sometimes also Inklusen with water drops or cavities are discovered.

Although the diversity of species was relatively large in the time, when the amber developed, Inklusenfunde are rare. Only about each 500. Piece of amber has an inclusion, whereby in the finds often only fragments of the enclosed organisms are present. In Schlaubensteinen from Baltic amber inclusions are so frequent that one can become in each twentieth, if you were not before already scanned. Frequently the Inklusen is also damaged. Therefore pieces with completely received certifications of the life at that time are scientifically particularly valuable.


So that resin amber and an enclosed organism become or a foreign body the Inkluse, the following conditions must be fulfilled:

  1. The insect (or the plant) must remain form stable, until the resin is confirmed.
  2. The resin may not shrink during confirming and also not by later load-ends rocks to be stressed.
  3. The resin must be clarified by sunning and heat effect in natural way.

If the insect of following resin is enclosed, the dismantling of the soft parts in its inner body begins. Muscles, glands and body fluid withdraw by body openings and body wall. Therefore the environment of the Inklusen is frequently milk-industrial union-cloudy. With the decomposition of the soft parts the confirmation of the resin already begins. If these processes are terminated and if the resin is embedded in the forest soil, then the resin amber and the insect become the Inkluse after millions of years.

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