|Name||Atropine or R, S-Hyoscyamin|
|Other names||Tropintropat, beta Phenyl gamma tropyl ester|
|Short description||colorless prisms|
|Mol mass||289,38 g/mol|
|State of aggregation||firmly|
|Melting point||114 - 116 "°C|
|Boiling point||- "°C|
|Steam pressure||- Pa (x "°C)|
|Solubility||solubly in alcohol, Ether, chloroform, insolubly in water|
|R and S-sentences||R: 26/28S: 25-45|
|LD50 (humans)||1.4 mg /kg|
|As far as possible and common, SI-UNITs are used. If not differently notes, the indicated data apply with standard conditions.|
Atropine (R, S-Hyoscyamin) (derived from Atropos, Greek fate goddess) is a poisonous alkaloid, which can be artificially manufactured, in addition, occurs in nature in night shade plants such as Tollkirsche (Atropa belladonna), Alraunen (Mandragora), angel trumpet (Brugmansia) and Stechapfel (Datura stramonium). Atropine is a Racemat from R and S-Hyoscyamin and develops only with the production of the material from the plant from S-Hyoscyamin; R-Hyoscyamin represents thus an artifact in such a way specified. Although a component of the Racemates (R-Hyoscyamin) exhibits hardly effectiveness, one prefers the production of atropine, because the complex separation procedure can be void then and furthermore it is not to be excluded that also in the body a Racemisierung can take place, as for example with the Contergan.S Hyoscyamin is also in the Bilsenkraut (Hyoscyamus the Niger) contained (name!). It is an ester of the with Tropin and ranks thus among the Tropan alkaloids. Only 1:1 mixture of R and S-Hyoscyamin (so-called clockwise rotating: To "R" for rectus and anti-clockwise rotating "S" for sinister Hyoscyamin, see also Stereochemie) atropine one calls. In most plants specified here also scopolamine (Hyoscin) is, structurally near related alkaloid to the Hyoscyamin.
In the medicine atropine use finds, in order to block the Parasympathikus. It interrupts the signal transduction in the nerve line. Atropine is thus a Parasympatholytikum and/or a Vagolytikum. Atropine restrains the muscarine-like effects of the acetyl choline by kompetitive inhibition of the acetyl choline receptors in the synaptic gap. For this reason it is inserted as antidote against nerve agents, whose toxic effect on an inhibition are based to the acetylcholinesterase. Patient (e.g. Soldiers) with such a nerve agent poisoning (e.g. with a contamination with sarin) are given to autoinjectors with 2 mg atropine sulfate as well as autoinjectors with 2 mg atropine sulfate and 220 mg Obidoximchlorid. Atropine decreases the saliva and Schleimsekretion, which can be used with operations in the mouth and throat range as well as with fiber-optical intubations and Bronchoskopien.
In particular during the introduction or during a Narkose it is used particularly with low heart frequency. It restrains above all the M1, M2 and M3 receptors and makes thereby a rise of the heart frequency (M2), a reduction of gastric acid production (M1) as well as a saliva reduction (M3). Further a December duck Bronchodilatation (M3) which means an advantage all in all for the Narkoseeinleitung. As asthma means it is not any longer used, instead better compatible derivatives are used.
Atropine is used rarely in the eye medicine as Mydriatikum for the extension of the pupils and in the range of the gastro-intestinal tract with cramps of the smooth musculature. Additionally atropine can be given to an attraction blister during difficult emptying of blister, with urinary incontinence and for treatment. In the woman medicine atropine was used rarely with Dysmenorrhoe (painful rule bleeding). One obtains the same effect today with n-butyl scopolamine, a chemically developed further derivative of the scopolamine, which affects relaxing the cramped smooth musculature and is freely available due to the smaller side effects.
It has the following effects:
Of an income as intoxication drug is to be warned. The therapeutic width of the material is small, the effects on heart and cycle is the center of attention and is already with small doses provable (e.g. 0.5 mg to the Narkoseeinleitung, 3 mg as maximum dose with the Reanimation). Psychological effects are to be expected thus only in a stage, with heart and cycle are maximally overloaded.
As poisoning symptoms as reported with other poisonings (see anti-cholinergic syndrome), turning red the skin, mydriasis, heart lawn and confusion are such as hallucinations. Subsequently, a heavy unconsciousness occurs, during a breath paralysis is usually deadly the poisonings. As autopsy results typically liver greasing and subepikardiale Ekchymosen were mentioned. Otherwise the findings are uncharakteristisch. Starting from 10 mg Delirien and hallucinations arise. With 100 mg a deadly breath paralysis begins. In particular children react with many smaller doses: Already 2 mg (correspond three to five Tollkirschen) are sufficient for a deadly dose.
Apart from poisonings by freiwilligen or involuntary consumption of plant parts (for example Tollkirsche) medizinale poisonings occur due to overdosing, mistake or wrong application.
The first assistance during atropine poisoning exists in immediate emptying of the gastro-intestinal tract (vomits, gastrolavage) as well as if required artificial respiration and/or breath donation.
As atropine derivatives are nowadays used: