Under animal forensics a union of interdisciplinary methods from Kriminalbiologie, judicial veterinary medicine, trace customer and Forensik is understood. Although this technical term on international level exists already for over one decade, so far still no adequate German designation is available.
In the closer sense under animal forensics the investigation of animal trace material one understands, which can serve a connection between authors and victims in connection with a crime as proof. In the broader sense animal forensics also the investigation of animal trace material designates with crimes, into which animals directly as "act-took part "are involved.
To define those ranges of the Kriminalbiologie, which concern themselves with the analysis of animal trace material with are in which animals neither "authors "or victims are, still as direct link between the act-taken part function (e.g. the investigation of corpse eating traces, forensische Entomologie among other things).
Examine-cash materials cover blood, hair and feathers/springs, saliva, excrement, urine, striking and mucous membrane samples as well as other fabric types. The most important method that animal forensics is the DNA analysis ("DNA forensics ").
The consideration and evaluation of animal trace material gained in the last years when forensischen investigations substantially significance. The development of promising molecular-genetic methods in the area that animal forensics was affected thereby considerably by innovative progress in the human genetics. To it above all the development of the polymerase nuclear chain reaction (PCR) belonged in the year 1983 by Kary Mullis.
1984 developed Alec Jeffreys "the genetic finger mark ", with which singular characteristics of the hereditary property are used, in order to identify individual individuals clearly. One year later was used the genetic finger mark for the first time before court for clarifying a Kriminalfalls. In the year 1988 it was recognized also of German courts as proof. Already 1987 became this molecular-genetic technology for application with animals adaptiertA.J. Jeffreys, D.B. Morton: DNA finger print OF dogs and cats. In: Animal Genetics 1987 (18): 1-15 and for clarifying disputed descending in the dog breed use. D.B. Morton, R.E. Yaxley, Ith Patel, A.J. Jeffreys, S.J. Howes, P.G. Debenham: Use OF DNA finger print analysis into the identification OF the sire. In: Veterinary record 1987 (121): 592-4 further progress, like the employment of specific DNA probes, led finally to the development of the micro satellite analysis.
The use of forensischer DNA investigations depends on the general readiness of the law to recognize indications on DNA basis as evidence. In an look up-exciting Kriminalfall 1995 were identified for the first time a murderer on the basis the molecular-genetic analysis of cat hair (see below: '' The case "Snowball "''). The analysis of mitochondrialer dog DNA became 1999 in case of a tried robbery murder in Texas for the first time with a hearing the hearing of evidence than evidence certified.
Today the use of DNA analyses is not to be excluded in the Forensik from the police determination work and the court halls any longer. Often it supplies the crucial proof of a connection between authors and victims. Assistance of modern molecular-genetic methods meanwhile also many unsettled old cases can again be rolled up owing to asservierter pieces of evidence. A progressive standardisation and automation of the laboratory and analysis methodology with the analysis of animal material lead - similarly as in the Humanforensik - for the setting up extensive national and international reference data bases, which can on the one hand a fast alignment with genetic material already examined make possible and on the other hand than basis for statistic probability computations serve.
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