The term economics (word meaning: ) Describe all mechanisms and actions of humans with the goal create “value” of using and of promoting resources existing in the environment and resources created by humans for the satisfaction of their material and immaterial needs.
Economics is the German word for oikonomia (griech.), in the antique Hellas and Rome, the administration of the household marked. Economics was used traditionally as spreading names for the connection of soil, raw materials, trade, work, and capital.
As an independent field of knowledge, the economy exists only since the end of 18. Century, as Adam Smith its “investigation for nature and the reason for the wealth of the nations “(1776) published.
Fundamental economic theories originated in the impression of the industrialization in 19. Century, so by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Writers such as Emile Zola and Mark of Twain described the effects of capitalism. Beginning 20. Century described max of webers, Rudolf Steiner and Werner Sombart in a critical way the consequences of industrialization. The terms alienation and exploitation of the work belong since then to the basic reproach against each economic development.
Apart from in particular the economic liberalism represented by Milton Friedman stand in the center of today’s restaurant discussion globalization, ecology, and mass unemployment as well as the discussion around the basic income.
The today’s stage of the economy in the western industrialized countries, which is characterized by a historically uniquely high supply of goods, is called “post-office-industrially “, “post-office-materialistically “and “post-office-modern “. In connection with features like the so-called New Economy and the so-called Freeware (goods and software, which are delivered in vain) took place among other things in the works of Norbert Bolz, Ulrich Beck and Peter Sloterdijk different disputed interpretations of the today’s economy.
A typologisierende history of the economy begins with the utilization of the goods existing in nature, for example, the food and the raw materials. These ranges of the economy – agriculture, forestry, and mining industry – form to today a fundamental component of the national economy.
Whereupon constructing an economy is developed, which converts already existing goods into other goods. This range is called “commercial economy” and covers handicraft and industry.
The range of the service economy covers a far spectrum of immaterial goods for industry and consumers. For this also the economic sectors of the trade and the traffic economy count. In the modern economy, the information economy is besides often specified as a newer, independent range, which is to guarantee the supply of organizations and humans with the correct information at the desired time. In recent times beside it, the range of the culture or creative economy is the subject of economic economics research and politico-economic initiatives.
The Subsistenzwirtschaft is the historically original restaurant form, in which each human or group of humans in each case transfer such as family, kinship or village community the tasks, which are necessary for self-sufficiency for the satisfaction of the needs and. It is a form of the exchange of workers within the social group according to the individual abilities and needs without externally specified standards for goods, services, and rules of the exchange. Ontogenetisch stands the Subsistenzwirtschaft until today at the beginning of human life in giving and taking parents and children and within the families and partnerships.
The of the Subsistenzwirtschaft the bartering supplied, e.g. on a market. On the basis of larger social communities, individual humans can concentrate by specialization and division of labor on the production or transformation of certain goods and increase thus their productivity. The satisfaction of the needs shifts thereby from the self-sufficiency of the mutual exchange of these goods by trade. The principle of this Tauschwirtschaft is the basis for practically all restaurant economics, which go beyond Subsistenzwirtschaft.
Most modern restaurant forms can be divided in principle far into the ranges Naturalwirtschaft and money economy. The original Naturalwirtschaft facilitates the exchange of goods only between persons, who have mutually goods for the satisfaction of the needs in each case of the different one. The money economy introduces the neutral article of exchange money, which facilitates the search for a suitable Tauschpartner.
The reality shows today in most large restaurant nations a predominant concern for money economy. However in most cases also an often not insignificant part at Naturalwirtschaft is to be observed, on the exchange of mutual achievements is based. In particular in associations, social organizations, in addition, within the range of the moonlighting can be determined this very day often exchanges without the use of money.
The range of the money economy can besides is roughly continued to partition in a free-market economy and planned economy. The free-market economy leaves solely responsible for acting to the involved ones. At the free market, an optimal reconciliation between needs and goods is to be achieved.
In the planned economy, however, the fair distribution of the produced goods is to take place according to the determined needs of humans with the help of central planning. The private possession of means of production is not permissible here.
The real elements of both beginnings can be found in most economic systems. Thus also in the western service nations always individual economic sectors were planned-economy covered, for example, the postal service. Also today the goods “security” apply and at least in large parts “public traffic” as the task of the state and are centrally administered into practically all modern managing. In order to use despite the planned-economy beginning the advantages of the free-market economy for the optimization of the employment of funds, increased for the form of the adjusted market one seizes, in which the involved ones enjoy large economic liberty, but certain national controls, e.g. the contribution from minimum performances to fixed prices, are subjected.
In Western Europe, the speech often is from the social free-market economy. This term was coined/shaped to a large extent by Ludwig Erhard, the first German Federal Minister for Economic Affairs after the Second World War and later Federal Chancellor, into the 1950er years.
To the investigation of economic acting, which laws of economic development and for the scientific support of national and operational deciding have themselves the economic science developed. They are usually divided into two ranges: the political economy and management economics.
The political economy examines overall economic connections as a result of rational decisions of individual participants (households, enterprises) and in the as result of the systematic interaction of overall economic aggregates (overall economic demand, investments, price level, etc.).
The management economics is concerned with the behavior of an economic unit, the enterprise, in the context of their limited possibilities and means.
As a founder of modern economic science mostly the Scot Adam Smith is regarded, which published 1776 its book at Inquiry into the Nature and Causes OF the Wealth OF nation. There Smith criticized up to then mostly the prevailing mercantilism. Its wide-spread work found large acknowledgment in Great Britain and the USA and obtained for the first time the idea of a new science direction for the investigation of economic acting. Smith brought in particular already existing ideas of the division of power of Montesquieu and the ideas together of the historian David Hume over human motives and ways of acting.
The modern political economy is based on the one hand on the investigations and publications of John May pool of broadcasting corporations Keynes, to that in its disputed work The Economic Consequences OF the Peace the reparation payments after that 1. World war as a ruin for the national economy of Germany criticized. Above all its general theory of the occupation, the interest and the money dominated the macro-economic discussion several decades. Apart from this inquiry-oriented (keynesianischen) political economy has in the second half 20. Century increasingly an offer-oriented orientation (monetarism) spreading and acknowledgment found, which decrease/go back on the economist Milton Friedman. Within the politico-economic range, these offer-oriented aspects were converted most clearly in England by the Prime Minister minister Margaret Thatcher (Thatcherismus) and in the USA by President Ronald Reagan (Reaganomics).
In economic science, today is mostly assumed the needs of humans are theoretically unlimited. Since the means are however limited for the satisfaction of these needs, inevitably not all needs can be satisfied. The goods for the satisfaction of the needs are thus scarcely (principle of the goods scarceness), the economy describes in this view the task to use the existing goods optimally.
The economy has a responsibility as one of the arranging forces in society. With this dimension of the organization, restaurant ethics is concerned. Many management consultants refer to the dangers, into which enterprises go if they act obviously egoistically and thus their image with potenziellen customers and business partners damage. But also inward is ethical acting of importance: both their motivation, which affects itself medium-term also economically, increases models of the profit-sharing and the integration of the coworkers into decision-making processes.
The Christian social teachings
Under critical break with economic theories, the churches developed an alternative, less “market-fundamentalist” restaurant concept, which develops on Christian fundamental convictions. They exist each particular, to which Jesus assures a life in abundance in the self-value, and which a social goal of arranging the life of humans solidary and lasting. This example connects the ecological question with the social and economic question and the long-term surviving of mankind.
“Durable development” and/or “lastingness” interlaces the following criteria:
- Justice and peace: a world-wide development concept for all humans – particularly in the economically weaker states – and their landspreading living together (see also “option for to arms”)
- Ecology: the feedback of the world-wide economic and social development processes to the preservation of the natural bases of life – see retaining the creation
- Present: the safety device of the basic supply for all today living humans and their sharing at the goods of the earth
- Future and precaution: the safety device of the conditions for existence for human being-worthy life of future generations – thus achtsame handling nature and environment (“option for the future”).
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- Norbert Bolz, the consumeristic communist manifesto, 2002, ISBN 3770537440
- Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (1962), (German: Capitalism and liberty ISBN 3821839600)
- John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society (1958), German: Society in the abundance, 1959, ISBN B0000BIBY8
- To Silvio associate, the natural economic system (1946), 10. Edition 1984, ISBN 3-87937-090-7
- Napoleon Hill, Think and Grow Rich, (1928), German: Think and become rich, 2002, ISBN 372051935X
- John May pool of broadcasting corporations Keynes, The General Theory OF Employment, Interest, and Money, 1936
- Nicholas Gregory Mankiw, fundamentals of the political economy (3. Edition), Poeschel publishing house Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 379102163X
- Karl Marx, the capital, Paderborn 2004, ISBN: 3937229345
- Richard Sennett, flexible humans, 2000, ISBN 344275576X
- Peter Sloterdijk, in the world interior of the capital, 2005, ISBN 3518416766
- Adam Smith, at Inquiry into the Nature and Causes OF the Wealth OF nation (1776), German: The prosperity of the nations, 1999, ISBN 342330149X
- Werner Sombart, love, luxury and capitalism (1902), 1967, ISBN B0000BTCP6
- Max webers, the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism, 2005, ISBN: 3899964284